Energy Efficient Cooperative Cognitive Radio Network with Challenges in Security

Cognitive radio (CR) has emerged as a promising solution to overcome the spectrum scarcity problem; the concept can be used to increase the spectrum efficiency through its capabilities to detect and thereby opportunistically access the vacant spectrum slots. Cooperative networks have also been recognized as a key technology for improving bandwidth utilization. Cooperative Cognitive Radio Network (CCRN) does it through fast and reliable spectrum sensing over the primary user (PU) band and consequent throughput improvement by power saving operation of the cooperative nodes which has an effect on interference reduction on PUs’ network. Two important issues on CCRN are Energy and Security. Energy detection is the simplest, widely used and optimal sensing technique where no prior knowledge is required on PU signaling technique. Energy has a direct impact on optimal transmission power, optimality in sensing and transmission slot on frame based system design.  Furthermore, the nodes in CCRN are assumed to be battery driven and power limited; hence energy efficient system design is highly demanding for enhanced network lifetime. However, cooperative/collaborative spectrum sensing is again vulnerable to different attacks, for example spectrum sensing data falsification (SSDF) attack, which demands fusion strategy to be secured or reliable or improved sensing to be done in presence of PUEA (primary user emulated attack). This tutorial will present an in-depth discussion on Energy efficient CCRN design, issues and challenges, security in collaboration ranging from theory to practice, from architecture to algorithms, and from policy to implementation. 

The tutorial will cover the following topics:

  • Introduction on Cognitive Radio: Concept, Terminologies, Definitions, Issues in Cognitive Radio.
  • Spectrum Sensing: Theory and Techniques for Spectrum Sensing, Different Spectrum Sensing in brief with relative merits and demerits; Cooperative spectrum sensing, Energy Efficient Spectral Sensing in optimization framework.
  • Joint spectrum sensing and data transmission: This part of tutorial aims to discuss joint spectrum sensing and data transmission in multihop Cooperative Cognitive Radio Network (CCRN) in different system models from an optimization framework on energy efficiency perspective. Discussion to be done about the roles of source-relay powers, number of relays involved, trade-off between sensing and transmission time slots, number of samples used, source-relay route selection etc. and finding their optimal values with an objective of minimizing the energy, outage minimization, interference minimization to PU, CR network throughput maximization etc.
  • Security Issues in CCRN:  This part of tutorial will focus on security aspects in Cooperative Spectrum Sensing; two types of attacks, namely spectrum sensing data falsification attacks (SSDF) and Primary User Emulation Attack (PUEA) to be addressed, again in optimization framework on energy values. Finally the tutorial will end with a discussion on related Research Challenges.

Mathematical treatment deals with convex optimization, stochastic optimization, graph based approaches to non-conventional approaches like (optimal) fuzzy C-Means clustering, fuzzy entropy and conditional entropy maximization on energies.

Santi P. Maity received his B. E. degree in Electronics and Communication Engineering of National Institute of Technology, Durgapur and M. Tech in Microwaves with specialization in digital communication, from the University of Burdwan, West Bengal, India in 1993 and 1997, respectively. He did his Master project in Time and Frequency Section, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi, India in 1997. He received his Ph. D degree in Engineering from Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, India in 2008 in association with Machine Intelligence Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata. He received couple of Post-Doctoral research positions in different universities, namely Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Laboratoire des Signaux et Systems, France and University of Vigo, Spain. He did his Post-Doctoral for SIX months duration twice (January 2009 to July 2009 and February 2011 to July 2011) in the “Laboratoire des Signaux et Systems (CNRS-Supelec-Universite Paris-Sud 11)” in France. He is at present working as Professor since September, 2012 in Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, India (Formerly known as Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, India).  He was Head for the Department of Information Technology in IIEST, Shibpur from February, 2012 to 1st February, 2014. His research interests include MC-CDMA, Cognitive Radio Networks, Cooperative spectral sensing and compressive sampling, Digital Watermarking, Secret Sharing, Medical Image Reconstruction at Compressed Sensing and Segmentation, Extraction and Analysis of Blood Vessels on Retinal Images. He has published about 150 research papers in International journals and Conferences including IEEE Transactions/Journals, Letters, Elsevier Science, Springer Verlag, World Scientific etc. He has completed successfully the Govt. of India sponsored project on Wireless Communication (MC-CDMA) as Principal Investigator, supervised several Master and Ph. D thesis, and delivered around 30 invited lectures in National Seminars, Workshops, Faculty Development Programs and International Conferences.

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